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What Is Tension Testing?

Also known as a tensile test, tension testing is one of the most basic, quick and cost-effective ways to find how a material will react under tension when forces are applied. This mechanical test is considered as reliable because it’s standardized and produces easily determinable results.

Tension Tested Material Goes Through This Process

The science behind it is also very straightforward. When you pull on a material, you can determine how strong it is and how much it elongates. A sample is subjected to controlled tension until it breaks. When it does, you’ll know how elastic the material is and the maximum force it can endure before it gives.

Tension testing is often used for quality control, to select a material to use for specific projects and to predict how different materials react when subjected to normal forces.

Properties Measured in Tension Testing

  • Poisson’s Ratio

This measures the Poisson Effect or how much the material contracts transverse to the direction of the stretching. Akin to a rubber band, you can notice parts of material being tested thinning as you stretch it.

  • Young’s Modulus

It’s the measure of how stiff a solid material is.

  • Yield Strength

It’s a material property that points to the amount go stress applied for a material to begin deforming. At this point, any deformation that happens to a material will be irreversible.

  • Work Hardening

This property focuses on how much a material strengthens after deformation. A lot of polymers and non-brittle metals are hardened this way. It can be either good or bad, depending on when it happens and what the purpose of the metal is.

What You Need

To start the test, a sample of a material should be obtained. It must have two shoulders — where the material will be gripped — and a gage — the section in between that will be observed for signs of deformation. The stretching, thinning and breaking will happen in the gage.

The machine you need to test the samples is called the universal testing machine. It has two crossheads, one is used to apply tension and the other is adjusted for the length. This machine comes in two types, a hydraulic powered machine, and electromagnetically powered one. Whichever kind you use, it must have the following capabilities to accurately test the specimen: force capacity, precision, speed, and accuracy.

Once you have these, the test can begin. All you have to do is put the material sample in the machine and gradually extend it until it breaks.



JD Fields Construction Group

JD Fields Construction Group

Prior to founding J D Fields & Company, Jerry Fields gained decades of experience in construction products and piling applications managing equipment rentals, material sales, and product operations. Coupled with his oil and gas experience, Jerry built a rock solid foundation of industry knowledge and relationships that allowed him and his partners to start the company in 1985. Incorporated in Houston, Texas, JDF quickly diversified into multiple construction markets and applications. Today, it is a premiere international source for natural gas pipe and piling products. Strategically positioned at the Port of Houston corridor, our flagship stocking facility has 40 acres of laydown area with steel processing and fabrication capabilities. We carry more than 50,000 tons of pipe and piling inventory throughout the states to serve North America, Canada, Mexico, the Caribbean and other international markets.